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Sinus CT scan

Definition

A computed tomography (CT) scan of the sinus is an imaging test that uses x-rays to make detailed pictures of the air-filled spaces inside the face (sinuses).

Alternative Names

CAT scan - sinus; Computed axial tomography scan - sinus; Computed tomography scan - sinus; CT scan - sinus

How the Test is Performed

You will be asked to lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. You may lie on your back, or you may lie face-down with your chin raised.

Once you are inside the scanner, the machine's x-ray beam rotates around you. (Modern "spiral" scanners can perform the exam without stopping.)

A computer creates separate images of the body area. These are called slices. The images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional models of the body area can be created by stacking the slices together.

You need to stay still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods of time. Straps and pillows may be used to keep you still during the procedure.

The actual scan should take about 2 minutes. The entire process should take 15 minutes.

How to Prepare for the Test

For some tests, you will need to have a special dye, called contrast, to be delivered into the body before the test starts. Contrast helps certain areas show up better on the x-rays.

  • Contrast can be given through a vein (IV) in your hand or forearm. If contrast is used, you may also be asked not to eat or drink anything for 4 - 6 hours before the test.
  • Let your doctor know if you have ever had a reaction to contrast. You may need to take mediciness before the test in order to safely receive this substance.
  • Let your health care provider know if you have kidney problems. Contrast may not be able to be used if this is the case.
  • Before receiving the contrast, tell your health care provider if you take the diabetes medication metformin.(Glucophage). You may need to take extra steps to prepare.

If you weigh more than 300 pounds, find out if the CT machine has a weight limit. Too much weight can cause damage to the scanner's working parts.

You will be asked to remove jewelry and wear a hospital gown during the study.

How the Test will Feel

Some people may have discomfort from lying on the hard table.

Contrast given through an IV may cause a slight burning sensation, a metallic taste in the mouth, and a warm flushing of the body. These feels are normal. They will go away within a few seconds.

Why the Test is Performed

CT rapidly creates detailed pictures of the sinuses. The test may diagnose or detect:

  • Birth defects in the sinuses
  • Infection in the bones of the sinuses (osteomyelitis)
  • Injury to the face over the sinuses
  • Masses and tumors, including cancer
  • Nasal polyps
  • The cause of repeated bloody noses (epistaxis)
  • Sinus infection or sinusitis or a sinus infection

This results from this test may also help your health care provider plan for sinus surgery.

Normal Results

Results are considered normal if no problems are seen in the sinuses.

What Abnormal Results Mean

Abnormal results may be due to:

  • Birth defects
  • Bone fractures
  • Cancer
  • Polyps in the sinuses
  • Sinus infection (sinusitis)

Risks

Risks of CT scans include:

  • Being exposed to radiation
  • Allergic reaction to contrast dye

CT scans expose you to more radiation than regular x-rays. Having many x-rays or CT scans over time may increase your risk for cancer. However, the risk from any one scan is very small. You and your doctor should weigh this risk against the benefits of getting a correct diagnosis for a medical problem.

Some people have allergies to contrast dye. Let your doctor know if you have ever had an allergic reaction to injected contrast dye.

  • The most common type of contrast given into a vein contains iodine. A person with an iodine allergy may have nausea or vomiting, sneezing, itching, or hives if given this type of contrast.
  • If contrast is needed, your doctor may give you antihistamines (such as Benadryl) or steroids before the test.
  • The kidneys help remove iodine out of the body. Those with kidney disease or diabetes may need to get extra fluids after the test to help flush the iodine out of the body.

Rarely, the dye may cause a life-threatening allergic response called anaphylaxis. If you have any trouble breathing during the test, let the scanner operator know right away. Scanners have intercom and speakers so the operator can hear you at all times.

References

Aygun N, Zinreich SJ. Radiology of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2010:chap 44.

Grainger RG, Thomsen HS, Morcos SK, Koh D, Roditi G. Intravascular contrast media for radiology, CT, and MRI. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 2.

Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 4.


Review Date: 1/13/2013
Reviewed By: Jason Levy, MD, Northside Radiology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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