Interstitial cystitis is a long-term (chronic) inflammation of the bladder wall.
Cystitis - interstitial; IC
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a painful condition due to inflammation of the tissues of the bladder wall. The cause is unknown.
IC is often misdiagnosed as a urinary tract infection. Patients can go years without a correct diagnosis. On average, there is about a 4-year delay between the time the first symptoms occur and the diagnosis is made.
The condition is most common around ages 30 to 40, although it has been reported in younger people. Women are 10 times more likely to have IC than men.
Video urodynamics (shows how much urine must be in the bladder before you feel the need to urinate)
There is no cure for IC, and there are no standard treatments that are known to be effective for most patients. Results vary from person to person. Treatment is based on trial and error until you find relief.
Combination therapy with medicines may help, including:
Pentosan polysulfate sodium, the only medication taken by mouth that is approved for treating IC
Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline to relieve pain and urinary frequency
Vistaril (hydroxyzine pamoate), an antihistamine that causes sedation and helps reduce urinary frequency
Other therapies may include:
Bladder hydrodistention (over-filling the bladder with fluid while under general anesthesia)
Bladder training (using relaxation techniques to train the bladder to go only at specific times)
Instilled medications -- medicines placed directly into the bladder, including dimethyl sulfoxide (DMS), heparin, or lidocaine
Physical therapy and biofeedback (may help relieve pelvic floor muscle spasms)
Surgery, including treatments during cystoscopy for bladder ulcers, and bladder removal (cystectomy) for very difficult cases
Some patients find that changes in their diet can help control symptoms. The idea is to avoid foods and beverages that can cause bladder irritation. Below are some of the foods that the Interstitial Cystitis Association says may cause bladder irritation:
Cranberry juice (Note: Although cranberry juice is often recommended for urinary tract infections, it can make IC symptoms worse.)
Fava and lima beans
Meats that are cured, processed, smoked, canned, aged, or that contain nitrites
Most fruits except blueberries, honeydew melon, and pears
Nuts except almonds, cashews, and pine nuts
Seasonings that contain MSG
Experts suggest that you do not stop eating all of these foods at one time. Instead, try eliminating one at a time to see if that helps relieve your symptoms.
Cody JD, Nabi G, Dublin N, McClinton S, Neal DE, Pickard R, Yong SM. Urinary diversion and bladder reconstruction/replacement using intestinal segments for intractable incontinence or following cystectomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;2:CD003306. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003306.pub2.
Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, Shool of Medicine, University of Washington; and Scott Miller, MD, Urologist in private practice in Atlanta, Georgia. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.