Spinal stenosis is primarily an aging process in the spine. Stenosis is derived from the Greek meaning, "narrowing of a normally larger opening." Stenosis of the spine can occur in the cervical, thoracic or lumbar region.
Herniated or Ruptured Discs
A herniated or ruptured disc can occur as the result of an injury or natural wear and tear on the spine. Symptoms may include dull or sharp pain, muscle spasm or cramping, sciatica and leg weakness or loss of leg function. Pain is caused when the damaged disc pushes into the spinal canal, compressing the nerves.
Spinal tumors are rare and can be benign or malignant. Some malignant tumors (such as breast, prostate, lung and kidney) metastasize (spread) to the spine via arteries, veins and the lymphatic system. Spinal tumors cause a variety of symptoms such as back pain, numbness, weakness and incontinence.