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Lung PET scan

Definition

A lung positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for disease in the lungs, particularly lung cancer.

Unlike magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans, which reveal the structure of the lungs, a PET scan shows how well the lungs and their tissues are working.

Alternative Names

Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging

How the test is performed

A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), usually on the inside of your elbow. It travels through your blood and collects in organs and tissues. The tracer helps the radiologist see certain areas or diseases more clearly.

You will need to wait nearby as the tracer is absorbed by your body. This usually takes about 1 hour.

Then, you will lie on a narrow table, which slides into a large tunnel-shaped scanner. The PET scanner detects signals from the tracer. A computer changes the results into 3-D pictures. The images are displayed on a monitor for your doctor to read.

You must lie still during test. Too much movement can blur images and cause errors.

The test takes about 90 minutes.

How to prepare for the test

You may be asked not to eat anything for 4 to 6 hours before the scan. You will be able to drink water.

Tell your health care provider if:

  • You are afraid of close spaces (have claustrophobia). You may be given a medicine to help you relax and feel less anxious.
  • You are pregnant or think you might be pregnant.
  • You have any allergies to injected dye (contrast).
  • You have take insulin for diabetes. You will need special preparation.

Tell your health care provider about the medicines you are taking. These include ones bought without a prescription. Sometimes, medicines can interfere with the test results.

How the test will feel

You may feel a sharp sting when the needle containing the tracer is placed into your vein.

A PET scan causes no pain. The table may be hard or cold, but you can request a blanket or pillow.

An intercom in the room allows you to speak to someone at any time.

There is no recovery time, unless you were given a medicine to relax.

Why the test is performed

This test may be done to:

  • Help diagnose lung cancer
  • See if lung cancer has spread to other areas of the body
  • Help determine if a growth in the lungs (seen on a CT scan) is cancerous or not
  • Determine how well cancer treatment is working

Normal Values

A normal result means the scan did not show any problems in the size, shape, or function of the lungs.

What abnormal results mean

Abnormal results may be due to:

What the risks are

The amount of radiation used in a PET scan is low. It is about the same amount of radiation as in most CT scans. Also, the radiation doesn't last for very long in your body.

Women who are pregnant or are breastfeeding should let their doctor know before having this test. Infants and babies developing in the womb are more sensitive to the effects of radiation because their organs are still growing.

It is possible, although very unlikely, to have an allergic reaction to the radioactive substance. Some people have pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site.

Special considerations

It is possible to have false results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes.

Most PET scans are now performed along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT.

Other tests that may be done instead of a PET scan include a gallium scan, CT scan, or MRI scan.

References

Gould MK, Fletcher J, Iannettoni MD, et al. Evaluation of patients with pulmonary nodules: When is it lung cancer? ACCP Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (2nd Edition). Chest. 2007;132:208S-130S.

Kieninger AN, Welsh R, Bendick PJ, et al. Positron-emission tomography as a prognostic tool for early-stage lung cancer. Am J Surgery. 2006;191:433-436.

Silvestri GA, Jett JR. Clinical aspects of lung cancer. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Martin TR, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 47.

Wahl RL. Imaging. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill-Livingston; 2008:chap 21.


Review Date: 3/4/2013
Reviewed By: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Blackman, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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