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Absolute Neutrophil Count ("ANC"): Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that help keep the body from getting an infection. We look at how many neutrophils are in your blood to see when the transplant is beginning to work, or to see when your body heals from chemotherapy treatment. (See Engraftment, Neutrophil)

Allogeneic Transplant ("Allo"): Stem cells are taken from someone other than you. The other person ("donor") may be a family member or someone else who is found to be similar to you.

Anemia: The red blood cells carry oxygen through the body. When red blood cell numbers are too low, it is called anemia. This can make you feel tired, short of breath and cold all the time.

Apheresis: This is when blood and stem cells are taken out of a vein. The blood then goes through a tube to a separator or apheresis machine. This machine takes out the stem cells and puts the rest of the blood back into the body through a vein. The stem cells that were removed are saved and used later in the transplant.

Autologous Transplant ("Auto"): In an autologous transplant, the patient's own stem cells are collected before chemotherapy and are later given back to you during transplant.

Benign: Not cancerous.

Bone Marrow: The soft tissue inside of large bones where blood cells are created. These blood cells are white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets.

Bone Marrow Transplant ("BMT"): A BMT is done to replace cells damaged from cancer with new healthy stem cells. A bone marrow transplant may be autologous or allogeneic (Also see Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant. It can also be referred to as a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / HSCT).

Chemotherapy: A drug that destroys cancer cells. Chemotherapy is used before a stem cell transplant. The kind of drugs used in chemotherapy depend on your disease, your age, and your health.

Central Line Catheter: The Central Line is a catheter, or thin plastic tube that is put into a large vein that runs near your neck. Your stem cells can be collected (Apheresis) through this tube. The catheter will stay in place through your transplant and will be taken out when your doctor decides you no longer need it.

Collection: See Apheresis

Colony Stimulating Factors (CSFs): Proteins that are made by the body to speed up the growth of blood cells. CSF's can be given by a shot to help the body make more blood cells to get ready for Apheresis.

Conditioning: The process of getting a patient ready to have a marrow or blood cell transplant is called conditioning. Chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy is often used. It is also known as a preparative regimen.

Discharge Planning: Planning to leave the hospital. Staff will look at what you will need at home and give you instructions for getting better while at home. This plan will also tell you when you should see your doctor.

Donor: A donor is a person who can give stem cells from their blood to be used for your transplant. This donor can be a family member, like a brother or sister. You can also be your own donor.

Engraftment: The point when the stem cells given to you during your transplant start to grow and make new blood cells.

Fatigue: The feeling of being tired and having little energy.

Filgrastim (G-CSF): The man-made version of a normal human protein that brings up the number of blood cells in the body. (See Colony Stimulating Factors (CSFs))

Graft-Versus-Host-Disease (GvHD): This can develop after an allogeneic transplant if the immune cells from the donor see the recipient's tissues as foreign. GvHD can arise even when the transplant comes from a matched related donor. This does not happen when you get your own cells in an autologous transplant.

Harvesting (See Apheresis): Removing stem cells from the blood.

Hematopoietic Cells: Young cells found in the blood that can grow into red blood cells, white blood cells or platelets. Also called blood-forming cells or progenitor cells.

Hemoglobin: The part of a red blood cell that carries oxygen.

HLA Typing: HLA typing is used to match patients and donors for stem cell and organ transplants. It is also called HLA testing.

Immune System: The body's system to fight against disease.

Induction Phase: This part of the transplant is the regular chemotherapy you get before your transplant. Induction is done first in order to shrink the cancer or disease as much as possible before transplant.

Infusion: An infusion is when fluid is given into a tube that goes into your blood. Your stem cells will be infused into your blood through a tube.

Low Bacteria Diet (see Neutropenic Diet)

Lymphocyte: A type of white blood cell. It is an important part of the body's immune system.

Maintenance Treatment: Your doctor may talk to you about continuing treatment after your transplant. Usually this is treatment in a smaller dose given for up to a year or more to help keep your transplant successful.

Malignant: Cancerous.

Marrow (See Bone Marrow)

Mobilization: Is the treatment given to prepare you for your transplant. This is done to get the stem cells to move from the bone marrow into the blood stream where the cells can be collected.

Myeloablative Transplant: A treatment that includes using radiation therapy.

Neupogen: Neupogen is the medicine that will make you or your donor's body makes extra stem cells so they can be collected and used later during your transplant.

Neutropenia: This occurs when you don't have enough white blood cells to fight off infections. When you are neutropenic, you are at risk for getting very sick with infection.

Neutropenic Diet: A special diet for patients who have a low number of white blood cells. You cannot eat fresh, uncooked vegetables on this diet. You can eat fresh fruit, but only if it has thick skin, like bananas, and only if the fruit has been washed on the outside. Fruit with thin skin, like apples or grapes, must be cooked before you can eat it. You cannot eat deli meats and cheeses on this diet.

Neutrophil: Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that help protect the body from infection. We look to see how many neutrophils are in your blood to tell us if you are engrafting after transplant, or healing after chemotherapy.

Non-Myeloablative Transplant: Also known as a -mini-transplant? or -low intensity? or -reduced intensity? transplant. This type of transplant uses smaller doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.

Peripheral Blood Stem Cell (PBSC) Donation: Peripheral blood stem cells are collected through the process known as apheresis. See Apheresis.

Peripheral Blood Stem Cell (PBSC) Transplant: This is done by collecting stem cells from the blood through a vein. This way is called apheresis. The stem cells are saved after collection. Next, you receive treatment to fight your disease. When you are done with the treatment, the stem cells that were saved are given back to you by an infusion. (Also see Bone Marrow Transplant)

Plasma: Plasma is the liquid part of blood.

Platelet: A platelet is the part of a blood that helps stop bleeding by forming clots.

Radiation Therapy: Treatment with high-energy rays to destroy or shrink cancer cells before transplant

Recipient: The person getting the transplant done is the recipient. You can be your own donor, getting back the cells taken from you earlier, or the donor could be another person.

Red Blood Cell: A blood cell that carries oxygen to all parts of the body.

Re-Infusion: A re-infusion is when stem cells are put back into your blood after treatment for your disease or cancer.

Recovery: Recovery is the process of healing from your stem cell transplant. This will take time to get back your strength, energy and appetite.

Relapse: A relapse is when signs and symptoms of disease return after transplant.

Remission: Remission happens when signs and symptoms of disease are gone after transplant.

Stem Cells: Stem cells are blank cells without a specific purpose that can turn into different kinds of cells. For your transplant, we are concerned with stem cells from the bone marrow and the blood.

Stem Cell Transplant: In your case, stem cell transplant refers to the use of blood or bone marrow stem cells as a treatment for cancer or other diseases.

T-Cell: A type of white blood cell that plays an important part in the immune system.

Tissue: Materials from your body, including skin, hair, nails, blood and urine.

Total Body Irradiation (TBI): A radiation treatment that is given to your entire body with high-
energy rays to destroy or shrink cancer cells before transplant.

Tumor: Any strange growth of cells. Tumors can be caused by cancer cells (malignant) or non-cancer cells (benign).

White Blood Cell: A blood cell that helps fight infection and is part of the immune system.

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